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幕墻安評的設計質量通病及防治技術

來源:2018《建筑門窗幕墻創新與發展》  作者:徐勤 王驊  日期:2019-11-21
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  摘要:2012年出臺的滬建交委第100號文《關于實施建筑玻璃幕墻結構安全性論證的通知》,明確指出新建的玻璃幕墻工程在初步設計階段,應進行結構安全性論證(簡稱“安評”)。本文收集了浦東新區近年來42項玻璃幕墻安評的設計資料,在匯總整理幕墻安評設計質量通病的基礎上,進一步分析了設計環節中影響建筑幕墻結構安全及使用安全的關鍵因素,并從材料內因、細節設計、使用環境等多個方面闡述了建筑幕墻設計質量通病的防治技術。
  關鍵詞:幕墻安評;設計質量通病;防治技術

  1. 前言

  WOGUOQIANGTIDE1/10;SHIGONGZHOUQIDUAN,JIAOYIBANJIANZHUQIANGTIDESHIGONGZHOUQIJIESHENG2/3SHIJIAN,ERBEISHOUQINGLAI。

  WEIYUYANANDONGLUDESHANGHAI“LIANYIDASHA”YU1984NIANJIANCHENG,SHOUKAISHANGHAIBOLIMUQIANGDEXIANHE。JIEZHI2016NIANDI,SHANGHAIYUEYOUBOLIMUQIANGJIANZHU12000CHUANG,YICHENGWEIWOGUOBOLIMUQIANGJIANZHUSHULIANGZUIDUODECHENGSHI,ZONGMUQIANGMIANJIYUEZHANQUANGUODE20%,QIEDADUOCUNZAIYURENLIUMIJIDEQUYU。

  RANERZAIZHEDUANDUAN30NIANDESHIJIANLI,WOGUODEMUQIANGXINGYEQUEZOUWANLEGUOWAI150NIANDEFAZHANSHI。BUFENDIAOCHAYANJIUSHUJUBIAOMING[3],ZHEXIEJIYOUDEBOLIMUQIANGJIANZHUCUNZAIZHUJIAODADEANQUANYINHUAN,ZHUYAOBIAOXIANWEIZIBAO、、KAIQISHANZHUILUO、、SHIXIAO、QUESHIDENGDUOXIANGWENTI。

  2012NIANBANBUSHISHIDEDI77HAOHUFULING《SHANGHAISHIMUQIANGGUANLIBANFA》MINGQUEGUIDING:“CAIYONGBOLIMUQIANGDEJIANSHEGONGCHENG,JIANSHEDANWEIYINGDANGZAICHUBUSHEJIWENJIANJIEDUAN,BIANZHIANQUANXINGBAOGAO,BINGTIJIAOJIANSHEXINGZHENGGUANLIBUZUZHIZHUANJIALUNZHENG(DIJIUTIAO)”;“JIANSHEDANWEIZAISHENQINGSHIGONGTUSHEJIWENJIANSHENCHASHI,YINGDANGTIJIAOJIEGOUANQUANXINGLUNZHENGBAOGAO、GUANGFANSHEHUANJINGYINGXIANGJISHUPINGGUBAOGAOHEZHUANJIALUNZHENGBAOGAO(DISHITIAO)”。

  TONGQIPEITAOCHUTAIDEHUJIANJIAO(2012)DI100HAOWEN《GUANYUSHISHIJIANZHUBOLIMUQIANGJIEGOUANQUANXINGLUNZHENGDETONGZHI》,GENGSHIMINGQUEGUIDING:“BENSHIXINGZHENGQUYUNEIXINJIAN、GAIJIAN、KUOJIANGONGCHENGHELIMIANGAIZAOGONGCHENGZHONGCAIYONGBOLIMUQIANGDEJIANSHEGONGCHENG,JUNYINGANZHAO《SHANGHAISHIJIANZHUBOLIMUQIANGGUANLIBANFA》DEGUIDING,SHISHIJIANZHUBOLIMUQIANGJIEGOUANQUANXINGLUNZHENG(DIYITIAO)”;“JIANSHEDANWEIZAISHENQINGWEITUOJIANZHUBOLIMUQIANGJIEGOUANQUANXINGLUNZHENGSHI,YINGTIJIAOJIANZHUBOLIMUQIANGJIEGOUANQUANXINGLUNZHENGSHENQINGBIAO、BOLIMUQIANGJIEGOUANQUANXINGBAOGAO、BOLISHU、SHANGHAISHIJIANSHEGONGCHENGBAOJIANBIAO、GUIHUABUMENSHENPIYIJIAN(DISITIAO)”。

  上述法律法規實施已近五年,玻璃幕墻結構安全性論證(以下簡稱“安評”)實施過程中各級管理部門、建設單位、設計單位、

  ZAISHANGHAISHIPUDONGXINQUJIANJIAOWEIKEJIWEI、PUDONGXINQUJIANSHEGONGCHENGSHEJIWENJIANSHENCHASHIWUZHONGXINDEDALIZHICHIXIA,ZHENDUISUOSHOUJIDAODE42XIANGBOLIMUQIANGANPINGSHEJIZILIAO,JINYIBUZHONGDIANTILIANLESHEJIHUANJIEZHONGYINGXIANGMUQIANGJIEGOUANQUANJISHIYONGDEGUANJIANYINSU,CAIYONGWENXIANJIANSUO、ZHUANJIAHUIYI、WENJUANDIAOCHADENGDUOZHONGXINGSHI,GUINAHEWANSHANCHANGJIANDESHEJIZHILIANGTONGBINGZUIZHUYAOCUNZAIWUGEFANGMIAN:

  (1) BOLICHICUNGUODA,GANGHUABOLIDEZIBAOWENTISHIZHONGWUJIAOHAODEJIEJUEFANGFA;

  (2) XIBUGOUZAOSHEJIBUDAOWEI,DUILIANJIEBUWEIDEJIEGOUJISUANQUESHI;

  (3) WAILIMIANDE(TIAO)ZAIQUESHAOHELIDEYANZHENGQIANBEISHEJIDADANYUNYONG;

  (4) DEDENGJIBUZU、DESHEZHIBUDANGDENG;

  (5) ZHONGDEDEGUANJIANYINSU,BINGYOUZHENDUIXINGDIZHANKAIYANJIU,TICHUXIANGGUANDEFANGZHIJISHU。

  (1)優選原材,本質解決幕墻玻璃自爆

  JUZHONGGUOXIEHUIMUQIANGGONGCHENGWEIYUANHUIDUIBEIJING、SHANGHAI、TIANJIN、ZHONGQING、XIAN、WUHAN、SHENZHEN、SHIMUQIANGZUICHANGSHIYONGDECAILIAO,YOUYUBOLIZAISHENGCHANGUOCHENGZHONGHUNRULEHANYOUJIEJINGWU,NiS(NIE)ZAI379℃SHIYOUYIXIANGBIANGUOCHENG,CONGGAOWENZHUANGTAIDEα-NiSJINGXIZHUANBIANWEIDIWENZHUANGTAIβ-NiSJINGXISHI,TIJIPENGZHANG2%~4%,QIEBIAOMIANCUCAO。RUGUOZHEXIEZAZHISHIZAIGANGHUABOLIQUNEI,ZETIJIPENGZHANGJIUKENENGYINQIZHALIE。

  XINDEYANJIUBIAOMING[4],BOLINEIDANZHIGUIJIEJINGWEILIPENGZHANGYEHUIYINQIBOLIDE。DANZHIGUIWEILIDEZHISHIBOLIPENGZHANGXISHUDEYIBAN,ERQUEBIBOLIDA。YOUYUBOLINEIFENSANZHUBUFENDANZHIGUIWEILI,DANGWENDUXIAJIANGSHI,YINQIDANZHIGUIWEILIZHOUBIANBOLIDEQIEXIANGZENGDA。DANGYINGLIGUODASHIYINQIJUBU,BINGDAOZHIZHENGTIPOSUI。

  GUANYUGANGHUABOLIZIBAOLV,GUONEIGESHENGCHANCHANGJIADESHUOFACONG0.3%~3%BUDENG,QIEBINGBUWANQUANYIZHI。ZHEYEJIUYIWEIZHU,JISHISHIHEGEDEGANGHUABOLI,ZAITONGGUOSUOYOUDESHENHEYIJIYANSHOUGUOHOU,TARENGJIUYOUYIDINGSHULIANGDEZIBAOLV。ERDUIYUBUFENDAMIANJI(5PINGMIYISHANG)、KUAI(DANPIANCHAOGUO20mmBOLIHUOSHIYOULIANGPIANGANGHUABOLIZUCHENGDEBANKUAI)SHIJIDEZIBAOLVKENENGGENGGAO。

  MUQIAN,CONGCAILIAONEIZAIBENZHISHANGJIEJUEGANGHUABOLI“ZIBAO”DEZHUYAOYOUJIAGONGGONGYIHEYOUZHI。

  REJINCHULI(Heat Soak Test,JIANCHENGHST)YOUCHENGJUNZHICHULI。ZHUYAOZUOYONGSHICUSHILIUHUANIEZAIGANGHUABOLIDEGONGCHANGZHONGKUAISUWANCHENGJINGXIANGZHUANBIAN,RANGYUANBENSHIYONGHOUCAIKENENGZIBAODEGANGHUABOLIRENWEIDITIQIANPOSUIZAIGONGCHANGDEREJINLUZHONG,CONGERJIANSHAOANZHUANGHOUSHIYONGZHONGDEGANGHUABOLIZIBAO。ANZHAOGUOWAIJINGYAN,JINGGUOJUNZHICHULIHOUDEGANGHUABOLIZIBAOLVKEJIANGDIZHI0.15%YIXIA。

  CHAOBAIBOLI,SHICAIYONGGONGYISHENGCHAN,CHENGFENZHONGFe2O3HANLIANGBUDAYU0.015%,JUYOUGAODE。CHAOBAIBOLI,YINQIXUANCAIJIBENBUYONGCHUANTONGBOLISUOYONGDEKUANGWUYUANLIAO(RU、、DENG),ERYONGDESHICHUNDUJIAOGAODEHUAGONGYUANLIAO,RUQING、TANSUANGAI、TANSUANMEIDENG,TONGGUOYOUXIAOJIANGDITIEDECHANLIANG,MEIYOULEZIBAODENEIYIN,SUOYIBUHUIFASHENGGANGHUABOLIDEZIBAO。

  (2)按規范設計,提升玻璃防墜性能

  現行的國標《》JGJ113-2015和《建筑幕墻工程技術規范》DGJ08-56-2012對幕墻玻璃面板的安全選用提出明確的要求。

  BENWENJIEHEPUDONGXINQUJIANSHEGONGCHENGSHEJIWENJIANSHENCHASHIWUZHONGXINTIGONGDE42DUOGEDUOXIANGJIANZHUGONGCHENGDEBOLIMUQIANGANPINGZILIAO,DUIBOLIMUQIANGDEXIBUSHEJIZHONGFANYINGDEYUMUQIANGMIANBANTUOLUOXIANGGUANDEZHILIANGTONGBINGJINXINGHUIZONGFENXI,CHITOUGUIFAN,ANGUIFANSHEJI,SHIXIANQUEBAOBOLIMUQIANGDEZHENGTIJIEGOUANQUANXINGNENG。

  a)加強玻璃外片質控

  GENJUGUOFAGAIWEIYUNXING[2003]2116HAO《》DEYAOQIU,MUQIANGBIXUSHIYONG。GAIGUIDINGZHONGSUOCHENGANQUANBOLI,SHIZHIFUHEXIANXINGGUOJIABIAOZHUNDEGANGHUABOLI、JIYOUGANGHUABOLIHUOBOLIZUHEJIAGONGERCHENGDEQITA,RUANQUANDENG。SHANGHAIDIBIAO《JIANZHUMUQIANGGONGCHENGJISHUGUIFAN》GENGSHIZAIQUANGUOLVXIANTICHU,LINJIEDEJIANZHURUXUCAIYONGBOLIMUQIANGYIYOUXIANCAIYONGJIACENGBOLI;ZHENDUIRENYUANMIJIQIELIUDONGXINGDADEZHONGYAODEMUQIANGBOLIMIANBANYINGCAIYONGJIACENGBOLI。

  TONGGUOGONGCHENGQIANDEYOUZHIXUANCAI,JIAQIANGBOLIWAIPIANDEZHILIANGKONGZHI。XUANZEQUEXIANXIANGDUIJIAOSHAODEYUANPIANZUOWEIBOLIDEWAIPIAN,SHIDUGANGHUABAOZHENGGANGHUABOLICHAJIAOXIAO,YINGLIFENBUJUNYUN,TIGAOGANGHUABOLIBIANBUDEJIAGONGZHILIANGDENG。

  b)控制玻璃最大面積

  通過大量的工程案例發現,超大面積的鋼化玻璃發生自爆的概率會遠遠高于常規尺寸的鋼化玻璃。因此,2012年5月1日上海市城鄉建設和交通委員會和上海市結構行業協會聯合頒布的上海市地標《建筑幕墻工程技術規范》DGJ08-56-2012第4.1.6條款要求:“幕墻玻璃面板宜不大于4.5 m2,應不大于2.5 m2,夾層玻璃面板應不大于9.0 m2,鋼化玻璃應有防自爆墜落措施、半鋼化玻璃應有防墜落構造措施”。

  (3)巧設緩沖,合理優化建筑體型

  YOUYUJIANZHUXUEDEFAZHANGENGJIAFENGFULEJIANZHUWUWAILIMIANDETIXING,ERBOLIMUQIANGZUOWEIJIANZHUDEWAIGENGJIANENGTUXIANCHUFENGFUDEKONGJIANCENGCI、FUZADUOBIANDEJIANZHUXIAOGUO。ZAIJIANZHUTIXINGSHEJISHI,YINGKAOLVJIEHEBOLIMUQIANGGAOKONGZHUILUODEFANGHUXINGNENG,HELIXUANYONGTUITAI、WAITIAO、DICENGJIAKONGDENGTIXINGCHULISHOUFA,QUEBAOJIANZHUSHIYONGANQUAN。

  ZAIJIANZHUDEZONGTIGUIHUASHEJIZHONG,YINGHELIHUAFENTONGXINGQU、HUODONGQU、GELIQUHEHUANCHONGQUDENGGONGNENGQUYU,BINGCHULIHAOXIANGHUZHIJIANDEGUANXI。GELIQUHETONGXINGQU、HUODONGQUZHIJIANYIDINGYAOJIANLIMINGQUEDEBIANJIE,JIANLISHUXIANGFANGHUDEANQUANCUOSHI,BINGQUEBAOTONGXINGQU、HUODONGQUBUDEYUGELIQUJIAOCHAHEZHONGDIE。

  SHIJIANZHUMUQIANGZHONGTUITAIDESHEZHIYOUHENDUOYOUDIAN[5],YIFANGMIANFENGFULEJIANZHUDETIXING;LINGYIFANGMIANHUANKEWEILOUCENGKONGJIANTIGONGLEIDIMIANDEHUODONGCHANGSUO。TUIRANGCHULAIDELUTAIZENGJIALERENXINGHUADESHIYONGKONGJIAN,DANTONGSHIYEXINGCHENGLEYIGEFANGMIANBANGAOKONGZHUILUODEHUANCHONGQU。FANZHI,WAITIAOTIXINGDEJIANZHUZEYINJIANZHUDEJUCUERBUFASHEZHIHELIDEHUANCHONGQUYU,ZAOCHENGQIANZAIDEZHUILUOSHANGHAIFENGXIAN。

圖3 設置緩沖區域的退臺建筑相對安全

  (4)遮陽和防火,兼顧安全

  HELIYOUXIAODIBUZHIMUQIANGDECUOSHI,KEYIGAISHANSHINEIRESHUSHIHUANJING,JIANGDITONGFENG、KONGDIAO、DEFUHE,TIGAOXIAOGUOHEJIANZHUWAIGUANXIAOGUODETONGSHI,GENGXUQUEBAOWAIZHEYANGZHUANGZHIDEANQUANXINGNENG。SUIRANMUQIANGWAIZHEYANGDEJIEGOUANQUANXINGJISUANSHANGWUMINGQUEDEGUIFANKEYI,DANYIYOUBUFENMUQIANGSHEJIDANWEICHANGSHIXINGDIKAIZHANJISUANFENXI,BINGTONGGUOXIANGGUANDEMONISHIYANLAIYANZHENG,ZHIDAOJUTIDEGONGCHENGSHIJIAN。

  MUQIANGFANGHUOXINGNENGYEYUELAIYUEDUOSHOUDAOSHEJISHIDEGUANZHU。TONGGUOYANJIUFANGZHIHUOYANYANZHUMUQIANGWAIQIANG、WUMIANCHUANBO,MIANBANHUOKERANSHIRUHEFANGZHILITIRANSHAO,JIANLIFANGZHILITIRANSHAODEHEFANGHUOFENQUDESHEJI。

  (5)擴大安評范圍,延伸至組合幕墻

  ANPINGZHONGFAXIANBOLIHESHICAIDEZUHEMUQIANGDEXINGSHIHENDUO。TEBIESHISHICAIDENGZHONGXINGMIANBAN,YOUYUSHICAIMUQIANGLIANJIEXINGNENGZAISHIYONGGUOCHENGZHONGBUDUANFASHENGTUIHUA,WENDUBIANHUA、JIXIEZHENDONGYIJIGEZHONGGEYANGDEWAIJIEYINSUDEYINGXIANG,ZHEYANGDESHOULIZHUANGTAIHENNANYONGCHUANTONGDELILUNJINXINGJISUANHEFENXI。

  JIANYIKUODAANPINGDEFANWEI,JIEHESHICAIMUQIANGDEJIEGOUFENXI,SHIXIANJIANZHUMUQIANGJIEGOUANQUANLUNZHENGDEQUANFUGAI,ZHENGTITISHENGZUHEXUEBAO.2007,(35)9: 1273-1276.

  [5] LICHEN.CHENGSHIJUZHUHUANJINGXIAGAOKONGZHUIWUJIJIANZHUSHEJIFANGZHUICUOSHIYANJIU.NANCHANGDAXUESHUOSHIBIYELUNWEN,2007NIAN.

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專家介紹

 徐勤

鋁門窗幕墻委員會專家組

工作單位:上海市建筑科學研究院

技術職稱:高級工程師

專業:*

專長:

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